Questionnaire Report for Green tiger shrimp

(MERA version 4.1.6)

Abdul Ben-Hasan ()


1 About this document

This is a prototype of an automatic report that documents how the user specified the operating model and their various justifications.

2 Introduction

  1. Describe the history and current status of the fishery, including fleets, sectors, vessel types and practices/gear by vessel type, landing ports, economics/markets, whether targeted/bycatch, other stocks caught in the fishery. (from the paper: “Shrimp support the most important fishery in Kuwait as it accounts for more than 35% of the total landings volume and value annually. Commercial shrimping in the Arabian Gulf started over 50 years ago when, in 1959, seven industrial trawlers, 23 m in length, were transferred from the Gulf of Mexico to Kuwait (Kristjonsson, 1968). Initially, industrial boats dominated the new fishery employing the otter trawl, but wooden dhow boats were quick to adopt this gear and join the bonanza. Historically, dhows had employed a scoop net, the qoofa, to capture shrimp in waters less than 2 m deep (van Zalinge, 1981). In the 1960s, the focus of the industry was exploitation only, with little or no concern for regulation and conservation. During this seminal period of the fishery, catch rates in the Arabian Gulf were among the highest in the world (Kristjonsson, 1968), and this led to over exploitation. Landings dropped sharply after 1976 (van Zalinge et al., 1984), and encouraged Gulf countries, including Kuwait, to consider management policies. Since then, a number of studies have been completed on biology and management of Kuwait’s shrimps (see reviews by van Zalinge et al., 1984; Abdul-Ghaffar and Al-Ghunaim, 1994; Mohammed et al., 1998; Ye et al., 1999a). Although 14 species of shrimps have been identified in Kuwait’s catches, only three are important commercially. In descending order of importance, they are the green tiger prawn (Penaeus semisulcatus), the kiddi shrimp (Metapenaeus affinis), and the jinga shrimp (Parapenaeopsis stylifera). Their percent contribution to shrimp landings varies from year to year, but generally P. semisulcatus, M. affinis, and P. stylifera account for about 60%, 30%, and 10% of the landings, respectively. During years of exceptionally good landings, P. semisulcatus accounts for 98% of the landings (Siddeek et al., 1994).”…"Most bycatch fish landings result from the shrimp fishery. KISR
  1. reported shrimp trawl bycatch composition as follows: (1) prime commercial species landed by the industrial and artisanal fleet was estimated to be 200 t/year; (2) sharks and rays of various species landed in small quantities, but the estimated quantities were approximately 4000 t/year (1984 estimates); (3) catfish volume (Family Ariidae, four species; majority P. tenuispinis and Netuma bilineata) estimated at 1400 t/year and landed in small quantities; (4) mixed fish of all small species of lower commercial value and also juveniles of commercial species. The estimated catches of this category was 10,000 t/year and only small quantities were landed. The main bycatch species included Leiognathus spp., P. stridens, Cynoglossus arel, Saurida spp., Johnius spp., Nemipterus spp., and Platycephalus indicus. The composition of the bycatch species vary seasonally for some major species such as P. stridens, Parupeneus spp., Caranx species, and catfish species."
  1. Describe the stock’s ecosystem functions, dependencies, and habitat types. (from the paper: “Juvenile distributions of P. semisulcatus occur during spring in shallow waters of sandy or reefal bottoms, with attached vegetation such as Sargassum, whereas juveniles of M. affinis occupy shallow muddy bottoms during summer (Bishop, 1988, 1989, 1994). Kuwait Bay and its adjacent areas as well as coastal areas south of Kuwait Bay have been found to be the major nursery areas for P. semisulcatus (Mohamed et al., 1981; Jones and Al-Attar, 1982; Al-Attar, 1984a).”
  2. Provide all relevant reference materials, such as assessments, research, and other analysis. Paper: Paper: Paper: Paper: Paper: in “Supporting docs” folder.

3 Fishery Characteristics

3.1 Longevity

Very short-lived (5 < maximum age < 7)
Short-lived (7 < maximum age < 10)
Moderate life span (10 < maximum age < 20)
Moderately long-lived (20 < maximum age < 40)
Long-lived (40 < maximum age < 80)
Very long-lived (80 < maximum age < 160)
Longevity is 1-2 years (

3.2 Stock depletion

Crashed (D < 0.05)
Very depleted (0.05 < D < 0.1)
Depleted (0.1 < D < 0.15)
Moderately depleted (0.15 < D < 0.3)
Healthy (0.3 < D < 0.5)
Underexploited (0.5 < D)
Several studies indicated that stock is overexploited but not crashed since catches are stable for over 30 years around 2000 tons. (

3.3 Resilence

Not resilient (steepness < 0.3)
Low resilience (0.3 < steepness < 0.5)
Moderate resilence (0.5 < steepness < 0.7)
Resilient (0.7 < steepness < 0.9)
Very Resilient (0.9 < steepness)
No information was found on steepness for this species.