Questionnaire Report for Hogfish

(MERA version 4.1.6)


1 About this document

This is a prototype of an automatic report that documents how the user specified the operating model and their various justifications.

2 Introduction

  1. Describe the history and current status of the fishery, including fleets, sectors, vessel types and practices/gear by vessel type, landing ports, economics/markets, whether targeted/bycatch, other stocks caught in the fishery. Hogfish are found in tropical, subtropical and temperate reefs in the western Atlantic and Caribbean Sea. Handline and spears are the primary gears used to catch hogfish. Hogfish are often targeted along with other species, most of which are abundant in the Southeast Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico, but some are less abundant and experiencing overfishing in Puerto Rico (The Safina Center Seafood Analysts 2016). Hogfish landings were reported from more commercial diving trips than any other finfish in Puerto Rico. Diving has been the most reported fishing gear in the self-reported commercial logbook data in Puerto Rico since 2007. Hogfish occur in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Western Atlantic from Nova Scotia (Canada) to northern South America (Robins and Ray 1986) (SEDAR 46, 2016). In the U.S. Caribbean, hogfish are part of the “wrasse unit” which also includes puddingwife and Spanishhogfish. However, hogfish account for nearly all of the “wrasse unit” catches (CFMC and NOAA 2011). In PuertoRico, hogfish commercial catches ranged from 50,000 to 130,000 lb from 2000 to 2009 and averaged 80,000 lb(CFMC and NOAA 2011). In recent years hogfish catches have been around 60,000 lbs (CFMC 2016). Hogfish inPuerto Rico are caught predominately by divers using spears (CFMC and NOAA 2014a)(Dolan 2015). Around2,000 lbs of hogfish are also caught in fisheries in the U.S. Virgin Islands (not covered in this assessment)(CFMC 2016). Hogfish are not directly targeted in the U.S. Virgin Islands but are an incidental catch in fisheriesfor other reef fish (CFMC and NOAA 2014a). (The Safina Center Seafood Analysts 2016.)

  2. Describe the stock’s ecosystem functions, dependencies, and habitat types.

  3. Provide all relevant reference materials, such as assessments, research, and other analysis. Caribbean Data-Limited Species. 2016. SEDAR. Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review. SEDAR 46 stock Assessment Report Addis et al 2018. STOCK ASSESSMENT OF HOGFISH IN THE WEST FLORIDA SHELFSTOCK 1986-2016. Report of the Update Assessment03/2018 Cooper et al 2013. The 2013 Stock Assessment Report for Hogfish in the South Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission Fish and Wildlife Research Institute 100 Eighth Ave Southeast St. Petersburg, Florida 33701-5020 The Safina Center Seafood Analysts 2016. Hogfish. U.S. Atlantic, Gulf of Mexico, Puerto Rico

3 Fishery Characteristics

3.1 Longevity

Very short-lived (5 < maximum age < 7)
Short-lived (7 < maximum age < 10)
Moderate life span (10 < maximum age < 20)
Moderately long-lived (20 < maximum age < 40)
Long-lived (40 < maximum age < 80)
Very long-lived (80 < maximum age < 160)
Consistent with SEDAR 37, the natural mortality rate (M) was assumed time invariant but decreasing with age based on Lorenzen (2005) with a cumulative target of M=0.179-1 across ages was used to scale the age-specific estimates (Table The M vector was computedassuming a maximum age of 25 years (McBride and Murphy 2003), supported by maximum age collected in the life history studies (23 years), and using the von Bertalanffy growth parameters from the life history studies outlined in the benchmark assessment report (SEDAR 37, Ch. 5.5.4).(Addis et al 2018)

3.2 Stock depletion

Crashed (D < 0.05)
Very depleted (0.05 < D < 0.1)
Depleted (0.1 < D < 0.15)
Moderately depleted (0.15 < D < 0.3)
Healthy (0.3 < D < 0.5)
Underexploited (0.5 < D)
There has been no formal assessment of hogfish in the Caribbean, but a data-limited assessment of Puerto Rico reef fishes suggests hogfish are likely overexploited. However, a recent data limited assessment of Puerto Rico reef fishes suggests that hogfish is likelyoverexploited (Ault and Smith 2015). ( The Safina Center Seafood Analysts 2016)

3.3 Resilence

Not resilient (steepness < 0.3)
Low resilience (0.3 < steepness < 0.5)
Moderate resilence (0.5 < steepness < 0.7)
Resilient (0.7 < steepness < 0.9)
Very Resilient (0.9 < steepness)
Effort from the commercial logbooks for the spear fishery has seen a steady increase since 1993 (Table and Figure Total number of days fished in the Florida trip ticket database for the spear fishery was relatively high in 1996-1997 and again in 2009-2010 as well as in 2014 (Table and Figure Reported effort for the hook and line fishery was high in 2001 but has since steadily declined aside from abnormally high effort in 2009. These generally declining trends of the effort time series are also supported by the total number of commercial licenses (SPLs) in Florida where both diving and hook and line fisheries peaked in the mid- 1990s and declined through 2007. Since 2008, however, commercial diving SPLs have increased
steadily (Table and Figure Figure Total effort from the logbook analyses for WFL diver hours (for spear). Note: the WFL hook and line records were too sparse to create a CPUE index and not provided (Addis et al 2018)