Questionnaire Report for Snowy grouper

(MERA version 4.1.6)

Brett van Poorten ()


1 About this document

This is a prototype of an automatic report that documents how the user specified the operating model and their various justifications.

2 Introduction

  1. Describe the history and current status of the fishery, including fleets, sectors, vessel types and practices/gear by vessel type, landing ports, economics/markets, whether targeted/bycatch, other stocks caught in the fishery. Snowy Grouper landings data appeared to be incomplete prior to 1986. Prior to 1990, 600,000 - 12,000,000 pounds whole weight of unclassified grouper were landed each year. Species-specific reporting improved beginning in 1990 when less than 300,000 pounds of unclassified grouper were landed. (SEDAR 46) The Reef Fish Fishery Management Plan was implemented in November 1984. The regulations, designed to rebuild declining reef fish stocks, included: (1) prohibitions on the use of fish traps, roller trawls, and powerhead-equipped spear guns within an inshore stressed area; and, (2) data reporting requirements. There was a 5 grouper recreational aggregate limit from 1990-2009; after 2009, aggregate limits were dropped to 4. Unsure what commercial catch limits were prior to 2005. In 2005 (March-August), there was a 10,000 lb gw TAC (Emergency rule); September-December 31 2005 was 7,500 lb gw TAC (Temporary rule); 2006-2009 there was a 6,000 lb gw TAC (Regulatory amendment); thereafter they were managed using IFQ

  2. Describe the stock’s ecosystem functions, dependencies, and habitat types. Snowy grouper adults live at depths from 30-525m, but typically between 100-200m. Adults spawn on hard structures, particularly at the shelf edge (Sedberry et al. 2006); juveniles live inshore in shallow areas (Heemstra and Randall 1993). Adults typically consume gastropods, cephalopods, and brachyuran crustaceans (Heemstra and Randall 1993)

  3. Provide all relevant reference materials, such as assessments, research, and other analysis. Bertoncini, A.A., Ferreira, B. & Aguilar-Perera, A. 2018. Hyporthodus niveatus. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species 2018: e.T7861A46909546. Heemstra, P.C. and Randall, J.E. 1993. FAO species catalogue. Vol. 16. Groupers of the world (Family Serranidae, Subfamily Epinephelinae). An annotated and illustrated catalogue of the grouper, rockcod, hind, coral grouper and lyretail species known to date. FAO, Rome. Sedberry, G.R., Pashuk, O. Wyanski, D.M., Stephen, J.A. and P. Weinbach. 2006. Spawning Locations for Atlantic Reef Fishes off the Southeastern U.S. 57th Gulf and Caribbean Fisheries Institute 57: 463-514. Report of the Gulf of Mexico SSC Review of the SEDAR 49 Data-Limited Species Assessment. 2016. Gulf of Mexico Data - limited Species: Red Drum, Lane Snapper, Wenchman, Yellowmouth Grouper, Speckled Hind, Snowy Grouper, Almaco Jack, Lesser Amberjack

3 Fishery Characteristics

3.1 Longevity

Very short-lived (5 < maximum age < 7)
Short-lived (7 < maximum age < 10)
Moderate life span (10 < maximum age < 20)
Moderately long-lived (20 < maximum age < 40)
Long-lived (40 < maximum age < 80)
Very long-lived (80 < maximum age < 160)
“A maximum age of 35 (SEDAR 2013) was chosen even though Kowal (2010) reported a maximum age of 44 y. Kowal (2010) only reported two fish older than 35 y.” (SEDAR 49)

3.2 Stock depletion

Crashed (D < 0.05)
Very depleted (0.05 < D < 0.1)
Depleted (0.1 < D < 0.15)
Moderately depleted (0.15 < D < 0.3)
Healthy (0.3 < D < 0.5)
Underexploited (0.5 < D)
Catch has increased in the 90s-2000s, but no information on spawning stock biomass.

3.3 Resilence

Not resilient (steepness < 0.3)
Low resilience (0.3 < steepness < 0.5)
Moderate resilence (0.5 < steepness < 0.7)
Resilient (0.7 < steepness < 0.9)
Very Resilient (0.9 < steepness)
Steepness has not been estimated. In the South Atlantic, the stock assessment (SEDAR 2013) fixed steepness at 0.84 based on meta-analysis because it could not be estimated. Previous assessment of that stock fixed steepness at 0.7.